By H.H. Kausch
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Additional info for Crazing in polymers
21). By the same token crazes grown at low temperatures in polymers with higher entanglement densities than PS should show a higher number density of cross-tie fibrils and thus even more fibril misorientation; Berger 437 has recently demonstrated that this expectation is also fulfilled. 2 Craze-shear Deformation Transitions -- Low Entanglement Density Polymers In discussing the crazing stress and crazing to shear transitions in linear polymers it is useful to distinguish between scission-dominated crazing, for which the surface tension F = 7 + (1/4)ve dU, and van-der-Waals crazing, where the disentanglement of polymer chains at the interface is so rapid that F = 7, the van,der-Waals 30 E .
Than observed experimentally. Accordingly, we suspect that Eq. (29), while providing elements of the correct description, is still incomplete. 4 Craze Breakdown and Fracture The growth of crazes described in detail above is only the start of the fracture sequence in a glassy polymer 7). Crazes are usually strongly load bearing and will grow both in width and in area until somewhere within the sample, a small region of one o f these crazes breaks down to form a large void. On further increases in stress (or time) this large void can eventually become a subcritical crack which, in turn, grows slowly until it reaches critical length and the sample fractures.
L A E D patterns from crazes produced in PS samples deformed at a 23 °C, b 34 °C, e 51 °C, d 61 °C, and e 71 °C. A Lorentzian background was subtracted from each image to enhance the satellite diffraction spots. (From Ref. lo~ courtesy P. Miller) Fundamental Processes of Craze Growth and Fracture 29 disentanglement will occur so one should not be impressed by the fact that the temperature at which the decrease in the predicted F(T) shown in Fig. 14b coincides with the range where the quantity DoS/8 decreases in Fig.