By J.W. Nicholson
Concise, effortless to learn creation to the topic. Fulfills the necessity for a polymer textual content written from an utilized attitude. Covers the fundamentals of polymer chemistry. Paper.
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Extra info for Chemistry of Polymers
Their properties, however, are very different from those usually associated with crystalline solids; in particular, they tend to exhibit low rigidity and at ambient temperatures are soft and deformable rather than brittle. This is because, unlike say sodium chloride o r copper sulphate, crystalline polymers include both amorphous and crystalline regions. X-Ray studies of crystalline polymers have shown that the crystallites are very small, of the order of tens of nanometres. This is much less than the end-to-end distance of a high molar mass polymer, a fact which was originally interpreted as implying that an individual polymer molecule actually passed through several crystallites as well as through a number of amorphous regions.
Sulfur reacts very slowly with rubber, and so is compounded with rubber in the presence of accelerators and activators. Typical accelerators are thiazoles and a typical activator is a mixture of zinc oxide and a fatty acid. The chemistry of the vulcanisation reactions is complicated, but generates a three-dimensional network in which rubber molecules are connected by short chains of sulfur atoms, with an average of about five atoms in each chain. A much more heavily crosslinked material can be obtained by increasing the amount of sulfur in the mixture, so that it represents about a third of the mass of the product.
9), where kd is the rate constant for the reaction. 10). These two processes may be considered to form part of the initiation stage, the first of them being rate determining. 1 1. A single rate constant, k,, is assumed to apply to these steps since radical reactivity is effectively independent of the size of the growing polymer molecule. 13). However, it is rarely necessary to distinguish between these two termination mechanisms, and so the rate constants are generally combined into a single rate constant, k , .