By Ph.D. J. J. Lagowski
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Additional info for Chemistry. Foundations and Applications
Although scientists do not know how aspirin reduces the risk of cancer, they suspect it could be related to its anti-inflammatory effects and its ability to inhibit enzymes produced by some cancer cells. Not all of aspirin’s health effects are beneficial. Salicylate therapy is associated with many adverse side effects, generally pertaining to the gastrointestinal system. Gastric ulcers and gastric bleeding can occur in individuals on high doses of aspirin. More worrisome is the occurrence of Reye’s syndrome in children with viral illnesses such as influenza or chicken pox who have been given aspirin.
Experimentally, the extent of ionization is determined by measuring the electrical conductance of solutions. Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes, and weak acids and bases are weak ionization: dissociation of a molecule into ions carrying ϩ or Ϫ charges 5 Acid-Base Chemistry Table 1. Common acids and bases. COM M ON A CI DS A ND BA S ES Strong Acids Strong Bases HCl hydrochloric acid NaOH sodium hydroxide HNO3 nitric acid KOH potassium hydroxide H2SO4 sulfuric acid Ba(OH)2 barium hydroxide Weak Acids Weak Bases CH3COOH acetic acid NH3 ammonia H2CO3 carbonic acid CH2NH2 methyl amine H3PO4 phosphoric acid electrolytes.
A calculator can be used to determine the logarithm. 82. Table 3 provides the pH values of some common solutions. Acid-Base Indicators Many natural substances are acid-base indicators. The most familiar one is litmus, an organic dye extracted from certain lichens. Litmus turns from blue to red in acidic solutions (Ͻ pH 7) and from red to blue in basic solutions (~ pH 7). Some other natural indicators include red cabbage extract, blueberry juice, black tea, beet juice, rhubarb, and tomato leaves, and flowers such as the rose, daylily, blue iris, and purple dahlia.