By Celsus, R. Joseph Hoffman
The works of many early critics of the Christian church have been burned by means of ruling emperors or another way destroyed within the moment and 3rd centuries, however the writings of the Greek pagan thinker, Celsus, have survived ultimately via his eloquent opponent Origen of Alexandria. In his apologetical treatise, Contra Celsum, Origen argues opposed to the guidelines set forth via Celsus and costs from Celsus' The actual Doctrine at size. via this treatise, Celsus has come to symbolize the indifferent pagan voice of the a while. during this translation, Professor Hoffmann has, for the 1st time, painstakingly reconstructed the most order of the philosopher's argument. Celsus' discourse exhibits him to be an eclectic philosopher--a dabbler in numerous faculties of proposal, together with Platonism and Stoicism, and a pupil of the heritage and spiritual customs of many countries. Hoffman supplementations this definitive translation with an informative advent, summarizing Celsus' premises and putting the id of Celsus in its ancient context.
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Extra resources for Celsus On the True Doctrine. A Discourse Against the Christians
7. 40. 3. 41. For a general discussion of Galen's views, see Richard Walzer, Galen on Jews and Christians (London, 1949). 42. Galen, cited from fragments given in Walzer, 48-49. 43· In the case of Porphyry, the reader is referred to Adolf von Harnack, Porphyrius, "Gegen die Christen" (Berlin, 1916). According to Harnack, Porphyry was the pagan philosopher cited by Macarius Magnes (early fifth century) in the Apocriticus (English trans. by T. W. Crafer [New York, 1919], esp. pp. 51-161). 4. GENERAL INTRODUCflON 44· On the thematic development of pagan anti-Christian polemic, see the essays in The Conflict Between Paganism and Christianity, ed.
97 (in R. A. B. , Oxford Classical Texts, 1963). 11. 10. 12. 5-6; in Ancient Christian Writers, 39, ed. G. W. Clarke (New York, 1974). 46 ~B ~ . 13 . 9·5-6. 14 . 4-5. 15 . justin, 1 Apology, 7· 16 . Tertullian of Carthage, A Prescription against the Heretics, 43· 17 . Tertullian, To the Nations, 7, 8; Apology, 11. 1 8. Tertullian, Apology, 39· 19 . Tertullian, Apology, 39· 20 . Tertullian, Apology, 50. 21 . Tertullian, Apology, 9· 22 . Tertullian, Apology, 35· 2 ~. Tertullian, To the Nations, 15.
3o. Tertullian, To the Nations, 15. 31. justin, First Apology, 54· 32 . joshua ben Pandera is execrated in certain midrashim as a heretic who "lived a life of deceit" and "caused Israel to go astray" through his apostasy. See R. T. Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (New York, 1903); joseph Klausner, jesus of Nazareth (London, 1925); and R. J. Hoffmann, Jesus, Outside the Gospels (Buffalo, 1984), pp. 37-53. JJ. , Selected Satires of Lucian (New York, 1962). 34· Lucian, Peregrinus, 10-13.