By Moulijn, Jacob A.; Leeuwen, P. W. N. M. van; Santen, R. A. van
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Additional info for Catalysis An Integrated Approach to Homogenous Heterogenous and Industrial Catalysis
24 2 -CATALYTIC PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY The place of these processes can best be understood from a simplified scheme of a typical oil refinery (Fig. 1). The crude oil is first separated by distillation into a number of fractions. The naphtha fraction has the right boiling point for gasoline, but does not have an acceptable performance. The 'octane number' is too low and has to be increased. This is achieved by 'catalytic reforming'. The catalysts for this process contain acid sites and noble metals, which are poisoned by nitrogen-containing bases and sulphur-containing compounds.
In these reactions in contrast to hydrocracking, in which size reduction is the objective - the 31 2 -CATALYTIC PROCESSES IN INDUSTRY molecular size is not drastically altered. Hydrotreatment as defined here is sometimes called hydropurification. The major objectives are: - protection of downstream catalysts; - improvement of gasoline (odour, colour, stability, corrosion); - protection of the environment. Typical reactions that occur are: Mercaptanes Thiophenes RSH + H2 + 3H2 - + - 0 S Phenols 0 0 .
07 Lambda Fig. 6. The concentration of CO, NO, CH, and 0 2 emitted by a gasoline engine as a function of h, the fuel-air ratio. 18 1 -HISTORY OF CATALYSIS At h < 1the activity for NO reduction is high, but not for the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons. At h > 1the reverse is the case. A special control system had to be developed to guarantee the desired exhaust gas composition. The control system appears to be more critical than the catalyst itself. The catalysts in use contain Pt and Rh as major constituents.