By Felicity Meakins
Till lately, combined languages have been thought of an oddity of touch linguistics, with debates approximately whether they truly existed stifling a lot descriptive paintings or dialogue in their origins. those debates have shifted from wondering their life to a spotlight on their formation, and their social and structural positive factors. This e-book goals to improve our knowing of the way combined languages evolve via introducing a considerable corpus from a newly-described combined language, Gurindji Kriol. Gurindji Kriol is spoken by way of the Gurindji those who dwell at Kalkaringi in northern Australia and is the results of pervasive code-switching practices. even though Gurindji Kriol bears a few resemblance to either one of its resource languages, it makes use of the types from those languages to operate inside a distinct process. This e-book makes a speciality of one structural point of Gurindji Kriol, case morphology, that is from Gurindji, yet capabilities in ways in which range from its resource.
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Extra info for Case-Marking in Contact: The development and function of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol
Other spatial relators such as cardinal terms are derived from Gurindji. Clause-linkers find their origins in both languages, for example coordinators and relative pronouns are Kriol-derived whereas subordination strategies using case-markers come from Gurindji. Finally word order is predominantly SVO, as is the case in Kriol, with deviations relating to discourse structures found in both Kriol and Gurindji. Lexically there is a mix between Kriol and Gurindji. In the excerpt above, some verbs are derived from Krio~ teikim 'take' and baldan 'fall; and others from Gurindji coverbs rarraj 'run' and jirrpu 'dive'.
The location of the biting action is expressed by a locative-marked nominal. 1) (6), ablative (7), source (8), perlative (9) and extent (10). (3) ngu=rna=rla. rrakap. kin-ta-wu, wari (5) yapart ngu=rla ya-na-na. woman-DAT sleep-LOC-DAT snake 'The snake sneaks up on the old woman who is sleeping: (FHM146: VD: Allative pictures) Chapter 1. -nku kawurlu-ngurlu=ma yikili (7) kula=nku=rla. nkulupal. O thus above parntawurru jiya-rna-na ngu maru-kijak. back smoke-IMPF-PRS CAT bottom-EXTENT 'After that we tum them over above (the fire) and it smokes their back right down to their bottoms: (VD:FM07_a085: Description).
Similarly younger speakers of Gurindji Kriol are increasingly using the Kriol dative preposition to mark animate goals, despite the fact that this form is not used in Kriol in this domain. Again the Kriol form is used with a Gurindji distribution which marks animate goals, indirect objects and benefactors with the same dative case-suffix. These patterns of marking again show the continuing incursion of Kriol into the nominal system of Gurindji Kriol in both torm and distribution. Finally Chapter 9 documents the shift of the ergative case suffix from indicating only argument relations in Gurindji to marking both this function and discourse structure in Gurindji Kriol.