Biological Physics by Challenor, Sally

By Challenor, Sally

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Atmospheric Thermodynamics In the physical sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat and energy transformations in the earth’s atmospheric system. Following the fundamental laws of classical thermodynamics, atmospheric thermodynamics studies such phenomenon as properties of moist air, formation of clouds, atmospheric convection, boundary layer meteorology, and vertical stabilities in the atmosphere. Atmospheric thermodynamics forms a basis for cloud microphysics and convection parameterisations in numerical weather models, and is used in many climate considerations, including convective-equilibrium climate models.

Enzyme inhibition can refer to: • The inhibition of the expression of the enzyme by another molecule. • Interference at the enzyme-level, basically with how the enzyme works. This can be competitive inhibition, uncompetitive inhibition, non-competitive inhibition or partially competitive inhibition. If the molecule induces enzymes that are responsible for its own metabolism, this is called auto-induction (or auto-inhibition if there is inhibition). These processes are particular forms of gene expression regulation.

Cytochrome P450 One class of key enzymes for drug metabolism belong to the family of cytochrome P450 oxidases, like CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2, etc. They reside in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), and prolonged usage of substances inducing enzymes here may cause proliferation of the ER. They are responsible for phase I reactions. Enzyme induction and inhibition are important processes to take in account when using drugs of vital importance to the patient, drugs with important side effects and drugs with small therapeutic windows, but any drug may be subject to an altered plasma concentration due to altered drug metabolism.

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