By Jean Effront
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Basic Books e-book date: 2009 unique ebook date: 1918 unique writer: Constable
''. .. Covers just about all of the required subject matters for a directly environmental chemistry path. The energy of this e-book is the wonderful quantitative technique that it offers to fixing difficulties. every one part has labored instance difficulties in the course of the textual content, and concludes with 25 or extra difficulties. a very good answer handbook is on the market.
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Thrombin was discovered by Buchanan in 1835. This enzyme, or rather one of the constituent parts of this enzyme, is found in abundance in the white corpuscles of the blood. I t is also found in the red corpuscles, though in much smaller proportion, and in many tissues. I t exists in the lymph, which has approximately the same composition as blood, and in pus, which is a sort of serum in which float the white corpuscles that have undergone fatty degeneration. Much discovered the presence of thrombin in staphylococcus aureus, and Higuchi has, by the aid of physiological salt solution, isolated this enzyme from the soft mass of the placenta.
With certain precautions, and by centrifuging the blood thus obtained, a plasma is obtained which remains liquid for a month or more. However, this goose plasma, with addition of even a very small quantity of the juice of bruised tissues, at once coagulates. 4. To prepare a rabbit plasma capable of being preserved several hours without coagulating, advantage is taken of the retarding influence which paraffin exerts on the appearance of thrombin. Withdrawing the blood by means of paraffined tubes and centrifuging in receptacles likewise paraffined, there is obtained a plasma which, preserved in vessels coated with this substance, keeps liquid for four or five hours, sometimes even for twenty-four or thirty hours.
One of the constituent products of thrombin, thrombokinase, is found deeply imprisoned in the leucocytes. In the normal state, in the circulating stream, the white corpuscles, by a kind of adaptation to the nature of the walls of the bloodvessels in which they circulate, do not give up their enzyme. Its appearance outside corresponds to a certain excitation, to a weakening, or even to the death of the cells. Under the influence of various causes, and especially under the influence of contact other than that of the wall of the blood-vessels, contact which modifies the surface tension of the blood corpuscles, there is a n abundant excretion of the active substance, not because the cells are dislocated or broken, but simply because a certain mechanical excitation results from such contact.