By P. Ehrenfreund (Editor), W.M. Irvine (Editor), T. Owen (Editor), Luann Becker (Editor), Jen Blank (E
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Loeb, A. 1996, ApJ 464, 523 Harwit, M. , 2003, ApJ, 589, 53 Heger, A. , Langer, N. , BaraVe, I. , 2002, Conf. on Luminous Celestial Objects, proceedings of MPA/ESO, p. 369 Hirashita, H. , 2003, NewAR, 47, 977 Li, A. J. L. , Ferrara, A. , Rumpl, W. , 2003, ‘The Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy’, A&SS Library Vol. P. A. A. , Madau, P. M. E. W. E. -Z. , Abel, T. I. 1996, in Disks and OutXows around Young Stars, eds. W. Beckwith, J. Staude, (Springer, Berlin) Scalo, J. , Schneider, R. , Natarajan, P.
Keywords: astrobiology – solar system: formation – stars: circumstellar matter – stars: planetary systems: protoplanetary disks 1 INTRODUCTION Delivery of extraterrestrial organic matter by comets and asteroids probably provided the molecules needed to initiate prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth (Oro´ 1961; Chyba et al. 1990; Ehrenfreund et al. 2002). * NAS/NRC Resident Research Associate. 33 P. Ehrenfreund et al. ), Astrobiology: Future Perspectives, 33–66. ß 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
1991). As material approaches the protoplanetary disk, many more endothermic chemical reactions come into play, driven by the increasing temperature. Radiation chemistry involving X-rays and UV from the accretion shock also play a role. Eventually, the accretion shock is encountered and shock processes come to dominate the chemistry of the material Wrst entering the nebula (Lunine 1989; Neufeld & Hollenbach 1994). SpeciWc regions of the disk favour survival of various interstellar materials (refractory metals, refractory and volatile organics, and ice) (see also Simonelli et al.