By Alexander of Aphrodisias, William E. Dooley
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Extra info for Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotles Metaphysics 1. Translated by W. E. Dooley
B) Stable equilibrium records a tendency to revert to a previous state after a small disturbance. (c) Unstable equilibrium occurs when a small disturbance forces a system towards a new equilibrium state where stabilization occurs. (d) Metastable equilibrium arises when a system crosses an internal or external system threshold (p. 20), so driving it to a new state. (e) Steady state equilibrium obtains when a system constantly fluctuates about a mean equilibrium state. (f ) Thermodynamic equilibrium is the tendency of some systems towards a state of maximum entropy, as in the gradual dissipation of heat by the Universe and its possible eventual ‘heat death’ and in the reduction of a mountain mass to a peneplain during a prolonged period of no uplift.
All three groups contain aluminium, magnesium, iron, and potassium or calcium as major elements. Olivine is a magnesium and iron silicate. The micas, amphiboles (mainly hornblende), pyroxenes, and olivine constitute the mafic minerals, which are darker in colour and denser than the felsic minerals. Felsic rocks include diorite, tonalite, granodiorite, rhyolite, andesite, dacite, and granite. Mafic rocks include gabbro and basalt. Ultramafic rocks, which are denser still than mafic rocks, include peridotite and serpentine.
In geomorphology, a few boulders resting on a talus slope may be thought of as a simple system. The conditions needed to dislodge the boulders, and their fate after dislodgement, can be predicted from mechanical laws involving forces, resistances, and equations of motion, in much the same way that the motion of the planets around the Sun can be predicted from Newtonian laws. In a complex but disorganized system, a vast number of objects are seen to interact in a weak and haphazard way. An example is a gas in a jar.