Advanced Polymer Chemistry by Chanda

By Chanda

This quantity employs a pragmatic, problem-solving method of realizing the designated chemistry, kinetics and mechanisms of polymer synthesis. It offers a finished research of the equipment of synthesis and strategies of characterization detailed to polymers. There are over 2000 equations, literature references, drawings, illustrative examples, routines, and worked-out difficulties and solutions to enhance crucial strategies mentioned through the textual content.

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Example text

Both structure and mechanismare usually needed in order to clearly classify a polymer. MOLECULARARCHITECTURE Polymers can be classified, based on structural shape of polymer molecules, as linear, branched, or network (cross-linked). Schematic representations are given in Fig. 3. 3 Schematic representation of various types of polymermolecules. The branch points and junction points are indicated by heavydots. Linear polymers have repeating units linked together in a continuous length [Fig. 3(a)].

2. The potential energy of the molecule is given in Fig. 3 as a function of the angle ~b through which the Ca-C4 bond is rotated from the planar trans conformation (q5 = 0) about the plane of the CI-C2-Ca bonds. , the methyl groups and hydrogen atoms are at 60° to each other. All three can be regarded as discrete rotational states. The staggered conformations are shown as Newmanprojections in Fig. 4 along with the eclipsed conformations that give rise to the maxima in Fig. 3. The restrictions imposed by short range steric interactions upon the conformations of a polymermolecule occur at a local level in short sequences of chain segments.

A network polymer [Fig. 3(d)], on the other hand, can be described as an interconnected branched polymer. For example, a three-dimensional or space network structure will develop, instead of the branched structure (XI), if styrene is copolymerizedwith higher concentrations of divinyl benzene. In a network structure, all polymer chains are linked to form one giant molecule. Thus, instead of being composed of discrete molecules, a piece of network polymer constitutes, essentially just one molecule.

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